Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull

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Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull
Credits:
The Web site "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull" was developed in collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and eduweb. Support for this Web site "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull" was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through grant EO-08261.02-97A from STScI, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Principal Investigator:
Roeland van der Marel, STScI

Site Design and Development:
Eduweb; David T. Schaller, Principal

Text, Image Selection and Storyline:
Roeland P. van der Marel, STScI
Gijs Verdoes Kleijn, Groningen University, The Netherlands
David T. Schaller, eduweb

Graphic Design and Illustration:
Steve Wagner, eduweb

HTML and Flash Production:
Paul Gardner, eduweb

Flash Programming:
Clayton Black, eduweb

Java Programming:
Ethalinda Cannon, eduweb

RenderMan Programming:
Frank Summers, STScI

Astronomy Outreach Consultant:
John Stoke, STScI

Awards & Honors:

Animation Credits:

Image of: Cygnus X-1 video
Animation courtesy NASA

Image of: Andromeda video
Animation by Thomas Goertel



Image of: blackhole animation
Animation by Frank Summers



All other animations were created by eduweb using Macromedia Flash.


Science Software Credits:

Image of: blackhole animation
The light bending in the black hole lensing animation was calculated using software written by Robert Nemiroff
(antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/ htmltest/rjn_bht.html).

Image of: Rosetta orbit
The trajectories in the "Orbit around a black hole" experiment are calculated and displayed using software written by John Walker (www.fourmilab.ch/ gravitation/orbits), with Java modifications by eduweb.



Image, Graphics and Animation Credits:

Image of Sun: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of Sun: Visual
Image courtesy Mt. Wilson Observatory/60 Foot Solar Tower



Image of Sun: X-Ray
Copyright © 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

Image of Moon: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI



Image of Moon: Visual
Image courtesy Dr. D. L. Daley,
North Carolina Wesleyan College
Rocky Mount, NC 27804

Image of Moon: X-Ray
Image courtesy NASA



Image of Saturn: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of Saturn: Visual
Image courtesy J.T. Trauger (JPL), J.T. Clarke (Univ. of Michigan), the WFPC2 science team, STScI and NASA



Image of Saturn: X-Ray
X-ray image courtesy: NASA/U. Hamburg/J.Ness et al

Image of Alberio: Visual
Image courtesy Randy Brewer
www.astronomydude.com



Image of M33: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of M33: Visual
Image © 2005 Frank S Barnes III, www.skyimager.com



Image of M33: X-Ray
Image courtesy of W. Pietsch, MPE Garching, Germany and ESA.

Image of Cygnus A: Radio
Image courtesy Chris Carilli and NRAO/AUI



Image of Cygnus A: Visual
Image courtesy Neal Jackson, STScI and NASA

Image of Cygnus A: X-Ray
Image courtesy A. Wilson & A. Young (UMD), P. Shopbell (Caltech), CXC, NASA



Image of Betelgeuse: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of Betelgeuse: Visual
Image courtesy Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland, STScI, NASA and ESA



Image of NGC7027: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of NGC7027: Visual
Image courtesy William B. Latter (SIRTF Science Center/Caltech) and NASA



Image of NGC7027: X-Ray
Image courtesy NASA/RIT/J.Kastner et al.

Image of Cygnus X-1: Radio
Image courtesy EVN, VLBA, VLA and Alastair Stirling



Image of Cygnus X-1: Visual
© Carnegie Observatories

Image of Cygnus X-1: X-Ray
Image courtesy BeppoSAX/LECS team at ESA/ESTEC



Image of Crab Nebula: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of Crab Nebula: Visual
© ESO European Southern Observatory



Image of Crab Nebula: X-Ray
Image courtesy NASA/CXC/ASU/J. Hester et al.)

Image of the night sky
Image courtesy Naoyuki Kurita



Image of Milky Way arm: Visual
Atlas Image obtained as part of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

Image of M31: Radio
Image from "Gas and Dark Matter in the Outskirts of M31" by: R. Braun, E. Corbelli, R.A.M.
Walterbos and D. Thilker in ASTRON Newsletter 17.




Image of M31: Visual
Image courtesy the SEDS Messier Catalog, by Guy McArthur, Mark Elowitz, Hartmut Frommert and Christine Kronberg. SEDS, University of Arizona Chapter, Tucson, Arizona, 1994-2003. www.seds.org/messier

Image of M31: X-Ray
Image courtesy ROSAT, MPE, NASA



Image of Milky Way bulge: Radio
Image courtesy NRAO/AUI

Image of Milky Way bulge: Visual
Image courtesy Digitized Sky Survey, STScI



Image of Milky Way bulge: X-Ray
Image courtesy NASA/CXC/MIT/F.K.Baganoff et al.

Image of Quasar: Radio
Image courtesy MERLIN



Image of Quasar: Visual
Image courtesy STScI, NASA and J. Bahcall (IAS)

Image of Quasar: X-Ray
Image courtesy NASA/CXC/SAO/H.Marshall et al.



Image of Hubble Space Telescope
Image courtesy NASA

Image of Palomar Dome
Image courtesy Tom Jarrett



Image of Keck telescopes
Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image of Chandra X-ray Observatory
Image courtesy NASA



Image of Arist impression of the XMM Newton X-ray Observatory
Image courtesy NASA

Image of Arist impression of the GALEX satellite
Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech



Image of VLA
Image courtesy NRAO

Image of Arecibo radio telescope
Image courtesy the NAIC - Arecibo Observatory, a facility of the NSF



Image of Arist impression of the Spitzer Space Telescope
Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image of Ring Nebula
Image courtesy The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)



Image of Dumbbell Nebula
© ESO European Southern Observatory

Image of Mars
Image courtesy NASA, ESA, STScI, J. Bell (Cornell U.) and M. Wolff (SSI)



Image of Jupiter
Image courtesy NASA, Reta Beebe, and Amy Simon (New Mexico State University)

Image of Saturn
Image courtesy NASA and E. Karkoschka (University of Arizona)



Image of Neptune
Image courtesy NASA and Erich Karkoschka, University of Arizona

Image of Uranus
Image courtesy NASA and Erich Karkoschka, University of Arizona



Image of Uranus
Image courtesy NASA and Erich Karkoschka, University of Arizona

Image of French scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace
Public domain image



Image of American physicist John Archibald Wheeler
John Wheeler ca 1954 (Photo by Blackstone—Shelburne, New York City, Courtesy J. A. Wheeler)

Image of British scientist Sir Isaac Newton
Portrait by Godfrey Kneller, 1689



Image of Swiss-American physicist Albert Einstein
Image courtesy Wikipedia

Image of the theory of general relativity
Image courtesy Gravity Probe B Image Archives and NASA



Image of a non-rotating black hole
Image copyright 1994 by University of Illinois Board of Trustees

Image of German physicist Karl Schwarzschild
Image courtesy Wikipedia



Image of two colliding black holes
Image courtesy K. Thorne (Caltech), T. Carnahan (NASA GSFC)

Image of a wormhole
Image courtesy Wikipedia



Image of American physicist Kip Thorne
Image courtesy California State University

Image of a Supermassive black hole
Image courtesy K. Cordes & S. Brown



Image of New-Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr
Photo courtesy Ishwaree Neupane

Image of galaxy NGC 6240
Optical image courtesy: R.P.van der Marel & J.Gerssen, STScI and NASA; X-ray image courtesy: S.Komossa & G.Hasinger (MPE) et al., CXC, NASA



Image from earth's orbit
Image courtesy NASA

Image of one of the two LIGO gravitational wave observatories
Image courtesy Caltech



Image of the LISA observatory
Image courtesy NASA

Image of a very small patch of our Milky Way galaxy in the constellation Sagittarius
Image courtesy NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)



Image of many distant galaxies
Image courtesy NASA, ESA, STScI, S. Beckwith and the HUDF Team

Image of Cassiopeia
Image courtesy NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)



Image of a pair of colliding galaxies
Image courtesy Brad Whitmore, STScI and NASA

Image of Large Hadron Collider
Image copyright CERN



Image of a stellar-mass black hole growing
Image courtesy NASA

Image of a disk of dust and gas in the galaxy NGC 7052
Image courtesy Roeland P. van der Marel, Frank C. van den Bosch (Univ. of Washington), STScI and NASA



Image of an accretion disk
Image courtesy NASA

Image of a jet
Image courtesy Astrophysics and Space Research Group, University of Birmingham



Image of British physicist Stephen Hawking
Image courtesy Wikipedia



Image of solar eclipse over Brazil
© T. Credner & S. Kohle, AlltheSky.com

Image of gravity of this galaxy cluster (called Abell 2218) bends the light from more distant galaxies behind it
Image courtesy W.Couch (University of New South Wales), R. Ellis (Cambridge University), STScI and NASA



Image of a distant quasar
Image courtesy J.Rhoads, S.Malhotra, I.Dell'Antonio (NOAO)/WIYN/NOAO/NSF

Artist's rendition of a black hole
Image courtesy Dr. W. Steffen, Cosmovision, Guadalajara, Mexico http://www.cosmovision
.com.mx



Image of stars
Image courtesy STScI, NASA, ESA and T.M. Brown.

Diagram of a spinning black hole
Image courtesy Paul Gardner




Acknowledgements:
This Web site "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull" was created using a grant awarded in association with several Hubble Space Telescope observing projects on the topic of black holes. In addition to Roeland van der Marel and Gijs Verdoes Kleijn these projects involved the following scientists: Dave Axon, Josh Barnes, James Binney, Stefi Baum, Alessandro Capetti, Marcella Carollo, Tim de Zeeuw, Linda Dressel, Pierre Dubath, Holland Ford, Karl Gebhardt, Puragra Guhathakurta, Lars Hernquist, Anton Koekemoer, Duccio Macchetto, Alessandro Marconi, Michael Merrifield, Chris Mihos, Chris O'Dea, Ruth Peterson, Tad Pryor, Ethan Schreier, William Sparks, Massimo Stiavelli, Zlatan Tsvetanov, and Chun Xu. We thank these individuals for their involvement in these Hubble Space Telescope observing projects.

We thank the following individuals for their involvement in the original grant proposal that ultimately led to the creation of this Web site "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull": Stephen McMillan, Neil de Grasse Tyson, Govert Schilling, Ray Villard and Fabienne Vondenhoff.

We thank the following individuals for their suggestions related to the storyline of the Web site "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull": Greg Bacon, John Godfrey and Bryan Preston.

We thank George Matsas, Jason Baumgartner and Niku Vaibhav for reporting an inaccuracy in our original implementation of the "The Voyage" module, which has now been fixed.

We thank the STScI Office of Public Outreach for their support and for their willingness to host this Web site "Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull" at http://hubblesite.org/